Main Article Content
Introduction Tobacco use remains a global health challenge as one-tenth of world’s population consume it regularly–thereby increasing its disease burden. Among all programs implemented, community-based interventions showed great potential, considering its ubiquity and practicableness. However, since tobacco consumption’s prevalence persists, especially in Asia, further reviews are needed.
Objective To analyze prior community-based tobacco control programs in Asia and identify potential approaches to be implemented as a mean to reduce tobacco use
Methods A systematic review was conducted through PubMed, Scopus, and CENTRAL, searching for randomized controlled trials (RCT) implementing community-based programs to control tobacco usage in Asia. Studies selected were assessed for bias risk with Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.
Results The search yielded eleven RCTs with a total of 28,805 subjects. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on education and counselling are proven to be effective in reducing tobacco consumption and increasing quit rate. Moreover, prevention programs which include school-based interventions, reduce the likeliness of adolescents to smoke in the future and also prevent further tobacco use in recent youth smokers.
Conclusions To conclude, community-based interventions showed promising results to be widely implemented as tobacco control and prevention strategies, helping to raise public awareness towards tobacco hazards and reducing the number of tobacco-related diseases and mortality worldwide.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association retain copyright and grant Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to freely share and remix the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association
2. Yang JJ, Yu D, Wen W, Shu X, Saito E, Rahman S, et al. Tobacco smoking and mortality in Asia: a pooled meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(3):e191474
3. WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2000-2025. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018
4. Golechha M. Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: a comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward. Int J Prev Med. 2016;7;7
5. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012.
6. Sheikhattari P, Apata J, Kamangar F, Schutzman C, O’Keefe A, Buccheri J, et al. Examining smoking cessation in a community-based vs. clinic-based intervention using community-based participatory research. J Community Health. 2016 Dec;41(6):1146-52
7. Merzel C, D’Afflitti J. Reconsidering community-based health promotion: promise, performance, and potential. Am J Public Health. 2003 Apr;93(4):557-74
8. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097
9. Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochran handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated 2011 Mar]. The Cochrane Collaboration. 2011. Available from: www.handbook.cochrane.org.
10. Higgins JPT, Sterne JAC, Savović J, Page MJ, Hróbjartsson A, Boutron I, et al. A revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials In: Chandler J, McKenzie J, Boutron I, Welch V, editors. Cochrane methods. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;10(Suppl 1).
11. Wang MP, Suen YN, Li WH, Lam CO, Wu SY, Kwong AC, et al. Intervention with brief cessation advice plus active referral for proactively recruited community smokers: a pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Dec;177(12):1790-7
12. Wang MP, Li WH, Cheung YT, Lam OB, Wu Y, Kwong AC, et al. Brief advice on smoking reduction versus abrupt quitting for smoking cessation in Chinese smokers: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Dec 13;20(1):67-72
13. Hong R-M, Guo S-E, Huang C-S, Yin C. Examining the effects of art therapy on reoccurring tobacco use in a Taiwanese youth population: a mixed-method study. Subst Use Misuse. 2017;53(4):548-58
14. Sarkar BK, West R, Arora M, Ahluwalia JS, Reddy KS, Shahab L. Effectiveness of a brief community outreach tobacco cessation intervention in India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial (the BABEX trial). Thorax. 2017 Feb;72(2):167-73
15. Harrell MB, Arora M, Bassi S, Gupta VK, Perry CL, Reddy KS. Reducing tobacco use among low socio-economic status youth in Delhi, India: outcomes from project ACTIVITY, a cluster randomized trial. Health Educ Res. 2016 Oct;31(5):624-38
16. White JS, Dow WH, Rungruanghiranya S. Commitment contracts and team incentives: a randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation in Thailand. Am J Prev Med. 2013 Nov;45(5):533-42
17. Jayakrishnan R, Uutela A, Mathew A, Auvinen A, Matthew PS, Sebastian P. Smoking cessation intervention in rural kerala, India: findings of a randomised controlled trial. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(11):6797-802
18. Lam TH, Chan SS, Abdullah AS, Wong VT, Chan AY, Hedley AJ. Smoking reduction intervention for smokers not willing to quit smoking: a randomised controlled trial. Hong Kong Med J. 2012;18 Suppl 3:4-8.
19. Kumar MS, Sarma PS, Thankappan KR. Community-based group intervention for tobacco cessation in rural Tamil Nadu, India: a cluster randomized trial. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2012 Jul;43(1):53-60
20. Perry CL, Stigler MH, Arora M, Reddy KS. Preventing tobacco use among young people in India: project MYTRI. Am J Public Health. 2009 May;99(5):899-906.
21. Chou CP, Li Y, Unger JB, Xia J, Sun P, Guo Q, et al. A randomized intervention of smoking for adolescents in urban Wuhan, China. Prev Med. 2006 Apr;42(4):280-5
22. Zhuang Y-L, Gamst AC, Cummins SE, Wolfson T, Zhu S-H. Comparison of smoking cessation between education groups: findings from 2 US national surveys over 2 decades. Am J Public Health. 2015 Feb;105(2):373-9
23. Reid JL, Hammond D, Boudreau C, Fong GT, Siahpush M, ITC Collaboration. Socioeconomic disparities in quit intentions, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence among smokers in four western countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Oct;12(Suppl1):S20-33
24. Wu L, He Y, Jiang B, Zuo F, Liu Q, Zhang L, et al. Relationship between education levels and booster counselling sessions on smoking cessation among Chinese smokers. BMJ Open. 2015;5(8):e007885
25. Shahab L, Sarkar BK, West R. The acute effects of yogic breathing exercises on craving and withdrawal symptoms in abstaining smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Feb;225(4):875-82
26. Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:1-26