Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association 2020-07-09T17:02:13+10:00 Gilbert Lazarus Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Asian Medical Students’ Association (J-AMSA) (ISSN: 2226-3403) is an International peer reviewed, online open-access student led biomedical journal of the Asian Medical Students’ Association-International (AMSA-International) published biannually, indexed at Ulrichsweb, Google Scholar, IndexCopernicus and Gale Cangage learning. It has been started with a vision of encouraging student led research in the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond.</p> <p>Research and Scientific writing by medical students is being increasingly acknowledged all over the world. AMSA-International with its vision of Knowledge, Action and Friendship, wants to encourage all forms of research and creative work from medical students. J-AMSA is a platform for young and budding researchers from Asia-Pacific and beyond who are just beginning their careers in the medical and scientific fields.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong></p> <p>The main objective of J-AMSA is to serve as a portal by documenting the research activities. We encourage all forms of scientific writing including Original Research articles, Review Articles, Case Reports, feature articles, letters to the editor etc. If you are interested in submitting your research article please go through the Author Guidelines and Submission Guidelines under the Submission section of our website.</p> <p>The journal accepts scientific articles authored by medical students including but not limited to the member countries of AMSA-International. Scientific articles related to all the disciplines of medicine, public health or health care management and those articles having impact on health in any form will be accepted. However, the editorial board reserves the right to deny publication of any article if it deems so. One of our priorities is to keep the article processing time to a minimum. Our online submission and article processing system has been tailored to fulfill this objective. Preference will be given to original articles with structured methodology.</p> <p>If you have any questions feel free to contact us at or contact any of the editors at the email addresses provided in the website.</p> Psychological Impact and Awareness of Androgenetic Alopecia Among Filipino Male Patients Aged 18 to 65 seen at the Outpatient Department of the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Department of Dermatology 2020-05-05T12:10:39+10:00 Fenny Leets Santoso Benedicto dL Carpio Eileen Regalado Morales Armelia Andrea L. Torres <p><strong>Background </strong>Androgenetic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss. Although losing&nbsp;<em>hair</em><em>&nbsp;</em>is not life-threatening, it can lead to psychological distress.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> To investigate the psychological impact using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the awareness among Filipino male patients aged 18 to 65 with androgenetic alopecia.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted at the OMMC Dermatology. Psychological impact was assessed using HADS. Age, education, duration of disease, previous investigation experience, previous experience in treating this condition, and satisfaction ratings for the treatment were likewise obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>145 Filipino male patients with androgenetic alopecia were included in the study. The risks of anxiety and depression were not statistically associated with severity of AGA (P&gt;0.05). The risk of depression was highest among those with severe AGA. 57% had previous investigation experience and 21% had previous experience in treating the condition, however only 1 or 0.7% was satisfied with the treatment. Age, education, duration of disease, level of awareness and treatment satisfaction and the severity of AGA in Filipino male patients were not statistically associated with anxiety (P&gt;0.05), however, age, education and Hamilton Norwood Classification were statistically associated with depression (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>Three factors have been found to influence psychological well-being and self-image in AGA patients: age of 50 years and above, lower education level, and a moderate to severe grade of disease according to the Hamilton-Norwood classification. It is hoped that optimal management focusing on these factors can be used to solve one of the mankind’s psychologically debilitating hair diseases.</p> 2020-05-05T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association Profile of HER2/neu, Estrogen Receptor and Heat Shock Protein 27 Expression in Early And Late Onset Indonesian Breast Cancer Patients 2020-06-28T13:52:37+10:00 Gabriele Jessica Kembuan <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Early onset breast cancer (occuring under age 40) tend to exhibit a different, aggressive phenotype, and are usually associated with hereditary BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We investigated the levels of Hsp27 and HER2/Neu, as well as ER positivity, in early onset breast cancer patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Eighteen paraffin blocks of tissues from patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of no specific type (IDC-NST) regardless of grade or stage, age below 39 years (mean 34 years) who underwent surgery or surgical biopsy in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, within the period of January 2014 - December 2014, were examined for Hsp27 expression, estrogen receptor status, and HER2/Neu amplification. The control group consisted of blocks from 112 patients diagnosed with IDC-NST aged older than 40 who underwent resection within the same period; all specimen in the control group is also stained for Hsp27 and tested for ER and HER2/Neu status.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Examined blocks gained from the younger patient pool typically has higher grade, were negative for estrogen receptor status and show less Hsp27 expression. Sixteen (88.9%) of early-onset patients has grade II or III cancer, with 55.55% presenting with grade III cancer. Meanwhile, 79 (70.53%) of late onset patient has grade II or III cancer, with 26.78% presenting with grade III cancer. Seventy-seven out of 112 (68.75%) patients aged 50 or older has positive ER status, while only 8 out of 18 (45.45%) of early-onset patients have positive ER status. All patients aged 50 years and below show Hsp27 score that is less than the median score, while from all patients aged 50 or above, 64 out of 96 (66.66%) samples exceed the median score. Meanwhile, HER2/Neu scoring distribution seem to be similar across age groups.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Difference in estrogen receptor expression and Hsp27 levels show a significant difference between early-onset and late-onset breast cancer patients. Meanwhile, HER2/Neu amplicafication shows similarities between early-onset and late-onset patients.</p> 2020-06-28T13:51:27+10:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association Community-Based Intervention Strategies to Reduce Tobacco Use in Asia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials 2020-06-28T13:54:03+10:00 Gilbert Lazarus Jessica Audrey <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong> Tobacco use remains a global health challenge as one-tenth of world’s population consume it regularly–thereby increasing its disease burden. Among all programs implemented, community-based interventions showed great potential, considering its ubiquity and practicableness. However, since tobacco consumption’s prevalence persists, especially in Asia, further reviews are needed.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong> To analyze prior community-based tobacco control programs in Asia and identify potential approaches to be implemented as a mean to reduce tobacco use</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong> A systematic review was conducted through PubMed, Scopus, and CENTRAL, searching for randomized controlled trials (RCT) implementing community-based programs to control tobacco usage in Asia. Studies selected were assessed for bias risk with Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong> The search yielded eleven RCTs with a total of 28,805 subjects. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on education and counselling are proven to be effective in reducing tobacco consumption and increasing quit rate. Moreover, prevention programs which include school-based interventions, reduce the likeliness of adolescents to smoke in the future and also prevent further tobacco use in recent youth smokers.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em> </strong>To conclude, community-based interventions showed promising results to be widely implemented as tobacco control and prevention strategies, helping to raise public awareness towards tobacco hazards and reducing the number of tobacco-related diseases and mortality worldwide.</p> 2020-03-29T00:00:00+11:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association Assessment of Factors Associated with Suboptimal Adherence of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy in Asia: A Systematic Review 2020-07-09T17:02:13+10:00 Jessica Audrey Ayers Gilberth Ivano Kalaij Fanny Michelle <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong> Despite efforts done to battle human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it still remains as one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide. Asia sits as the second region with most HIV prevalence worldwide. Non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is one of the factors which contribute to treatment ineffectiveness. Plenty of studies have tried to research on this problem, yet reviews regarding non-adherence factors in Asia are still lacking.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong> To analyze factors associated with ART suboptimal adherence in Asia</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong> A systematic review was conducted through PubMed, Scopus, and CENTRAL, searching for observational studies which analyze factors contributing to ART non-adherence in Asia. Studies selected were then assessed for bias risk with STROBE’s criteria.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong> The search yielded twenty observational studies with a total of 18,546 subjects, consisting of 16 cross-sectional studies and 4 cohort studies. Non-adherence to ART was associated with a number of factors. Personal factors, such as gender, age, and personal backgrounds, as well as socioeconomic factors, such as one’s education level and monthly income were significantly associated with adherence. Psychological health of HIV patients also affected their adherence to treatment. Furthermore, distance to health care facilities and patients’ relationship with health care providers were also important.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong> To conclude, addressing factors related to treatment non-adherence is important to enhance treatment effectiveness. Knowledge of these factors is hoped to help improve strategies and guidelines for ART adherence, especially in Asia, therefore helping to increase treatment effectiveness and reducing HIV mortality worldwide.</p> 2020-04-24T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association Effectiveness of Various Health Insurances in Tackling Health Problems of the 21st Century: A Systematic Review 2020-05-26T17:47:43+10:00 Nico Gamalliel Reynardi Larope Sutanto Mochammad Izzatullah Gita Fajri Gustya <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong></p> <p>To investigate the relationship between health insurance and health quality using systematic method.</p> <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Health insurance can be said has strong relation in achieving Goal 3 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), “<em>Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages</em>”. One of the key factor in reaching ‘healthy lives’ is the access to medical care. Health insurance has been implemented across many countries in order to facilitate access for good quality medical care. Some studies indicated that health insurance have positive effect to improve health quality of patient. Another study indicated there is inverted effect between ownership of health insurance and health quality. The link between health insurance and its ability to tackle health problems therefore should be thoroughly investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>Systematic review was conducted using keywords “Insurance, Health”[Mesh] AND “Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation”[Mesh] on Pubmed. Afterwards, titles are screened for relevancy and duplication. Contents then were then screened for inclusion criteria, which include studies with publication age less than five years, observational studies, and studies which look upon effects of health insurance on its users’ health, and exclusion criteria, which include inaccessible articles, articles written in foreign languages, and irrelevant articles. A total of 6 suitable studies were included in the final review and were subjected to STROBE analysis.</p> <p><strong>Key Findings: </strong></p> <p>Increased usage of proper health insurance is related to an increase in overall health outcomes of various diseases, including type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (7% decrease of hyperglycemia on patients with more expensive insurance), acuity of thoracic aortic operations (underinsured patients were at greatest risk of getting acute nonelective operation; OR: 2.67), gastritis (insurance coverage reduce prevalence of <em>H. pylori</em>), cardiac arrest (102/100.000 to 85/100.000 incidence after insurance expansion), albuminuria (higher mortality for individuals without private insurance), and peritonitis (better prognosis for individuals with better insurance). These conditions could be explained by increase in health awareness and accessibility of medication by patients with quality health insurance. This finding could become a basis for governments to highly consider quality insurances as means to improve the health of the nation.</p> 2020-05-26T17:46:36+10:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association Taiwan’s Experience in Managing COVID-19 and the Impact on Medical Students 2020-05-05T12:09:29+10:00 Ting-Wei Kao <p>&nbsp; In the past several months, the globe was overwhelmed by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. As rising number of documented cases and mortality toll continued to be reported, it is imperative to reexamine the current healthcare system as well as consider the repercussion on medical society. The condition in Taiwan, although expected critical regarding close intertwine with epicenter, was relatively stable thus far given multiple efforts paid, suggesting the experiences here may serve as a reference for other countries. In this review, the progression of COVID-19 was illustrated. Additionally, four aspects of implemented measures were introduced, and their respective implications were discussed. First, national team production and name-based allocation, followed by map-directed and online pre-order system, ensured the public to obtain enough surgical masks. Second, constant advocacy of the quarantine policies and personal hygiene, in conjunction with regular press conference by officials, accomplished message transparency and citizens’ literacy upon the situation. Third, establishment of the traffic control bundle successfully antagonized nosocomial infection and prevented subsequent clusters. Forth, biomedical research not only propelled the elucidation of the COVID-19 pathogenesis but also facilitated the development of potential medications and even vaccination. Furthermore, the impact on medical education was delineated. Reorganization of training curriculum, distance learning, and the practice of virtual meeting reshaped the landscape of clinical training. In conclusion, through conscientious appraisal on how we confronted COVID-19 will the community be better prepared for the next pandemic.</p> 2020-05-05T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Asian Medical Students' Association